The objective of this course is to give to the students a general knowledge of marine biology by studying its different aspects. This course deals with the main characteristics of the marine environment; physical and chemical factors influencing the marine environment. Reproduction of the marine organisms; life cycles and reproductive strategies. Biotic interactions in the marine environment. Benthos: phytobenthos, zoobenthos; benthic distribution; methods for the study of benthos. Plankton: phytoplankton, zooplankton; methods for the study of plankton. Nekton; methods for the study of nekton. Brackish environments; general characteristics and colonisation strategies. Functioning and productivity of the marine ecosystems.