Scheda programma d'esame

FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS

FRANCESCO FORTI

Academic year2022/23

CoursePHYSICS

Code305BB

Credits9

PeriodSemester 1

LanguageEnglish

CoursePHYSICS

Code305BB

Credits9

PeriodSemester 1

LanguageEnglish

Obiettivi di apprendimento

Learning outcomes

Conoscenze

Conoscenza quantitativa di base della fisica delle particelle elementari e delle loro interazioni, dal punto di vista fenomenologico e sperimentale. Conoscenza dello sviluppo temporale delle principale scoperte.

Knowledge

Basic quantitative knowledge of the the physics of elementary particles and of their interactions, from the phenomenological and experimental point of view. Knowledge of the time development of the main discoveries.

Modalità di verifica delle conoscenze

La verifica delle conoscenze acquisite avviene attraverso un colloquio di esame.

Assessment criteria of knowledge

Acquired knowledge is verified through an oral exam.

Capacità

Valutazione quantitativa di processi di scattering e decadimento di particelle elementari. Progettazione concettuale di esperimenti di fisica delle particelle

Skills

Quantitative evaluation of scattering and decay processes of elementary particle. Conceptual design of particle physics experiments.

Modalità di verifica delle capacità

La verifica delle capacità acquisite avviene attraverso le discussioni degli esercizi proposti per casa e durante le esercitazioni e tramite un esame scritto che consiste nella risoluzione di alcuni esercizi.

Assessment criteria of skills

Acquired skills are verified through the discussion of homework and classroom assignments and through a written exam consisting in the resolution of a few exercises.

Prerequisiti (conoscenze iniziali)

Conoscenze di elettromagnetismo avanzato, meccanica quantistica non relativistica e relatività ristretta. Competenze di calcolo differenziale, algebra lineare, calcolo con matrici, analisi nel piano complesso.

La frequenza al corso presuppone il completamento della laurea triennale, e in particolare il superamento degli esami di Fisica 3 e Meccanica Quantistica.

Prerequisites

Advanced electromagnetism, non relativistic quantum mechanics and special relativity. Calculus, linear algebra, matrix calculation, complex plan analysis.

This course assumes the completion of the bachelor degree, and with particular regard of the Physics 3 and Quantum mechancs courses.

Indicazioni metodologiche

Il corso è organizzato con lezioni ed esercitazioni in aula con frequenza fortemente consigliata.

Teaching methods

The course is organized with classroom lessons and exercise sessions, with strongly adviced in person attendance.

Programma (contenuti dell'insegnamento)

Module 1: Historical and phenomenological introduction (6)

- Experimental methods in particle physics. Sources: cosmic rays, reactors and isotopes, accelerators. Extracted beams and colliders
- Reminder of radiation detection techniques and detectors.
- Brief history of the discovery of elementary particles and construction of the Standard Model.[Experiments: Conversi, Pancini, Piccioni; Powell; Cowen Reines, Andersen]
- Photon, mesons, antiparticles, baryons, leptons, strange particles, quarks and gluons, intermediate vector bosons, Higgs bosons.
- Main characteristics of the fundamental interactions and Standard Model phenomenology.
- Forbidden and allowed diagrams in the SM.

Module 2: Basic methodology (10)

- Reminder of relativistic kinematics. Notation for 4-vectors. Mandelstam relativistic invariants. Natural units
- Scattering and decay. Mean life, width, cross section. Lorentz-invariant phase space. Transition matrix. Fermi golden rule.
- Relativistic equations: Klein-Gordon and Dirac. Classification of elementary particles: spin, fermions and bosons. Particles and anti-particles.
- Concept of Feynman diagrams and calculation methods

Module 3: Symmetries and conservation laws. (6)

- Symmetries, invariance, conservation laws, symmetry breaking.
- Discrete symmetries, C, P e T. Statement of CPT theorem.
- Intrinsic parity of particles (P). Parity of the pion. [Chinowsky and Steinberger experiment(1954) on slow pion capture on deuteron]
- Intrinsic charge conjugation (C). C for photon and π0.
- Continuous symmetries and conservation laws. Statement of Noether theorem.
- Use of group theory and their representation. Angular momentum and composition rules.
- Isospin symmetry. Doublets (nucleon) and triplets (pion). Flavor SU(2) symmetry. G-Parity
- Baryons and mesons from ud quarks: n,p,π,Δ,ρ,ω

Module 4: Electrodynamics (8)

- Feynman rules: identical particles in final state; sum on final states; average on initial states. Interaction as exchange of mediator particle.
- Charge conservation and gauge symmetry.
- QED Feynman diagrams.
- e+e- annihilation in a muon pair.
- Reminder of hydrogen levels, fine and hyperfine structure, Lamb shift.
- Positronium, level structure, decay channels.Parapositronium and ortopositronium

Module 5: Hadrons and strong interactions (12)

- Hadronic resonances. The 3/2+ Δ
- Associated production of K – Λand strangeness discovery. S=-1, -2, -3 baryons
- Dalitz plotin three-body phase space. Angular momentum and parity of final states of two or three neutral or charged pions.
- Pseudo-scalar mesons. Strange mesons K. The theta-tau puzzle. η, η’.
- Vector bosons: ρ,ω, φ. ρ decay in two charged and neutral pions.
- Approximate flavor SU(3) symmetry.Group derivation of quark model. Baryonic number. Organization in octets and decuplets.
- Pointlike nature of quarks in Deep Inelastic Scattering
- Hadronic production at e+e- colliders. Ratio R of hadronic production to muon pairs. Experimental evidence of quark colour.
- Discovery of the J/psi (charm) and of its excited states. [Richter and Ting experiments and the november revolution]
- Angular distribution of jets and quark spin. Events with tre hadronic jets and evidence of gluon.
- The third family and the completion of the quark model [Lederman experiment]
- Measurement of αs. OZI selection rule.
- Concept of running coupling constants for αQEDand αs
- Feynman diagrams for hadronic processes.

Module 6: Weak interactions (12)

- Charged and neutral current interactions. Muon decay. Fermi constant and 4-fermion process.
- Neutron beta decay. Pion decay and helicity suppression.
- Neutrinos and conservation of leptonic flavor. Dirac and Majorana neutrino. Neutrinoless double beta decay [Experiment on muon neutrino flavor]
- Limits on neutrino masses. [Measurement with tritium]
- Parity violation in weak interactions. [Wu experiment]
- Helicity and chirality.V-A weak currents. Pion decay.
- Helicity of the neutrino.[Goldhaber experiment]
- Weak charged currents in quarks and the Cabibbo angle.
- Charm and GIM mechanism. Absence of Flavor Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC)
- CKM matrix and quark mixing. Particle-antiparticle conjugation violation (CP)
- Feynman diagrams for weak processes.

Syllabus

Module 1: Historical and phenomenological introduction (6)

- Experimental methods in particle physics. Sources: cosmic rays, reactors and isotopes, accelerators. Extracted beams and colliders
- Reminder of radiation detection techniques and detectors.
- Brief history of the discovery of elementary particles and construction of the Standard Model.[Experiments: Conversi, Pancini, Piccioni; Powell; Cowen Reines, Andersen]
- Photon, mesons, antiparticles, baryons, leptons, strange particles, quarks and gluons, intermediate vector bosons, Higgs bosons.
- Main characteristics of the fundamental interactions and Standard Model phenomenology.
- Forbidden and allowed diagrams in the SM.

Module 2: Basic methodology (10)

- Reminder of relativistic kinematics. Notation for 4-vectors. Mandelstam relativistic invariants. Natural units
- Scattering and decay. Mean life, width, cross section. Lorentz-invariant phase space. Transition matrix. Fermi golden rule.
- Relativistic equations: Klein-Gordon and Dirac. Classification of elementary particles: spin, fermions and bosons. Particles and anti-particles.
- Concept of Feynman diagrams and calculation methods

Module 3: Symmetries and conservation laws. (6)

- Symmetries, invariance, conservation laws, symmetry breaking.
- Discrete symmetries, C, P e T. Statement of CPT theorem.
- Intrinsic parity of particles (P). Parity of the pion. [Chinowsky and Steinberger experiment(1954) on slow pion capture on deuteron]
- Intrinsic charge conjugation (C). C for photon and π0.
- Continuous symmetries and conservation laws. Statement of Noether theorem.
- Use of group theory and their representation. Angular momentum and composition rules.
- Isospin symmetry. Doublets (nucleon) and triplets (pion). Flavor SU(2) symmetry. G-Parity
- Baryons and mesons from ud quarks: n,p,π,Δ,ρ,ω

Module 4: Electrodynamics (8)

- Feynman rules: identical particles in final state; sum on final states; average on initial states. Interaction as exchange of mediator particle.
- Charge conservation and gauge symmetry.
- QED Feynman diagrams.
- e+e- annihilation in a muon pair.
- Reminder of hydrogen levels, fine and hyperfine structure, Lamb shift.
- Positronium, level structure, decay channels.Parapositronium and ortopositronium

Module 5: Hadrons and strong interactions (12)

- Hadronic resonances. The 3/2+ Δ
- Associated production of K – Λand strangeness discovery. S=-1, -2, -3 baryons
- Dalitz plotin three-body phase space. Angular momentum and parity of final states of two or three neutral or charged pions.
- Pseudo-scalar mesons. Strange mesons K. The theta-tau puzzle. η, η’.
- Vector bosons: ρ,ω, φ. ρ decay in two charged and neutral pions.
- Approximate flavor SU(3) symmetry.Group derivation of quark model. Baryonic number. Organization in octets and decuplets.
- Pointlike nature of quarks in Deep Inelastic Scattering
- Hadronic production at e+e- colliders. Ratio R of hadronic production to muon pairs. Experimental evidence of quark colour.
- Discovery of the J/psi (charm) and of its excited states. [Richter and Ting experiments and the november revolution]
- Angular distribution of jets and quark spin. Events with tre hadronic jets and evidence of gluon.
- The third family and the completion of the quark model [Lederman experiment]
- Measurement of αs. OZI selection rule.
- Concept of running coupling constants for αQEDand αs
- Feynman diagrams for hadronic processes.

Module 6: Weak interactions (12)

- Charged and neutral current interactions. Muon decay. Fermi constant and 4-fermion process.
- Neutron beta decay. Pion decay and helicity suppression.
- Neutrinos and conservation of leptonic flavor. Dirac and Majorana neutrino. Neutrinoless double beta decay [Experiment on muon neutrino flavor]
- Limits on neutrino masses. [Measurement with tritium]
- Parity violation in weak interactions. [Wu experiment]
- Helicity and chirality.V-A weak currents. Pion decay.
- Helicity of the neutrino.[Goldhaber experiment]
- Weak charged currents in quarks and the Cabibbo angle.
- Charm and GIM mechanism. Absence of Flavor Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC)
- CKM matrix and quark mixing. Particle-antiparticle conjugation violation (CP)
- Feynman diagrams for weak processes.

Bibliografia e materiale didattico

Complete textbooks:

- Bettini - Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics - Cambridge U.P. (2012),
- Griffiths - Introduction to elementary particles - Wiley (2008),
- D.H. Perkins - Introduction to High Energy Physics -- Cambridge U.P. (2000),
- Thomson, Modern Particle Physics, Cambridge U.P. (2013).
- E. Peskin, Concepts of Elementary Particle Phsyics, Oxford U.P. (2018)

Further reading:

- H.J. Lipkin, Lie Groups for Pedestrians, Dover (2002)
- Cahn, Goldhaber - The experimental foundations of Particle Physics - Cambridge U.P. (2009).
- M.S. Sozzi - Discrete symmetries and CP Violation - Oxford G.T. (2008).
- Povh, Rith, Scholz, Zetsche - Particles and nuclei - Springer 6-th Ed. (2008).
- Hagedorn, Relativistic Kinematics

On the interactions of the radiation with matter and particle detectors:

- Green - The physics of particle detectors - Cambridge U.P. (2000),
- Grupen - Particle detectors - Cambridge U.P. (1996),
- W.R. Leo -Techniques for nuclear and particle physics experiments - Springer-Verlag (1994).
- J.D. Jackson - Classical Electrodynamics - Wiley (1998),
- Ferbel (ed.) - Experimental techniques in HEP - Addison Wesley (1987),
- Kleinknecht - Detectors for particle radiation - Cambridge U.P. (1998).

Essential general reference:

- Particle Data Group - Review of particle physics – pdg.lbl.gov

Bibliography

Complete textbooks:

- Bettini - Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics - Cambridge U.P. (2012),
- Griffiths - Introduction to elementary particles - Wiley (2008),
- D.H. Perkins - Introduction to High Energy Physics -- Cambridge U.P. (2000),
- Thomson, Modern Particle Physics, Cambridge U.P. (2013).
- E. Peskin, Concepts of Elementary Particle Phsyics, Oxford U.P. (2018)

Further reading:

- H.J. Lipkin, Lie Groups for Pedestrians, Dover (2002)
- Cahn, Goldhaber - The experimental foundations of Particle Physics - Cambridge U.P. (2009).
- M.S. Sozzi - Discrete symmetries and CP Violation - Oxford G.T. (2008).
- Povh, Rith, Scholz, Zetsche - Particles and nuclei - Springer 6-th Ed. (2008).
- Hagedorn, Relativistic Kinematics

On the interactions of the radiation with matter and particle detectors:

- Green - The physics of particle detectors - Cambridge U.P. (2000),
- Grupen - Particle detectors - Cambridge U.P. (1996),
- W.R. Leo -Techniques for nuclear and particle physics experiments - Springer-Verlag (1994).
- J.D. Jackson - Classical Electrodynamics - Wiley (1998),
- Ferbel (ed.) - Experimental techniques in HEP - Addison Wesley (1987),
- Kleinknecht - Detectors for particle radiation - Cambridge U.P. (1998).

Essential general reference:

- Particle Data Group - Review of particle physics – pdg.lbl.gov

Modalità d'esame

L'esame finale è strutturato con una prova scritta ed una prova orale.

Assessment methods

The final exam consists of a written test and an oral examination.

Pagina web del corso

Class web page

Altri riferimenti web

At the link: https://elearning.df.unipi.it/course/view.php?id=312 interested students will find texts and solutions of the previous years written tests and various additional scientific and historical papers and references.

The course will be initially in mixed mode using this Teams channel.

Additional web pages

At the link: https://elearning.df.unipi.it/course/view.php?id=312 interested students will find texts and solutions of the previous years written tests and various additional scientific and historical papers and references.

The course will be initially in mixed mode using this Teams channel.

Updated: 15/09/2022 15:22

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